Close Collapse all sectionsProcess Data set: Steel Enamel Baths and Shower Trays (en) en de
Key Data Set Information
Location DE
Reference year 2014
Name
Steel Enamel Baths and Shower Trays
Use advice for data set Scope: Steel enamel baths and shower trays, exclusively manufactured in the Ahlen plant of Franz Kaldewei GmbH & Co. KG, Germany. System boundary: The LCA for the enamel steel baths and shower trays considers the life cycle phases of Production (A1-A3) as well as recycling of packaging during installation (Module A5). Disposal in terms of re-use, treatment and landfilling (C4) is also considered in this study. An analysis of the modules under review gives rise to credits and loads beyond the system boundary (Module D), especially as a result of the steel recycling potential which is fully allocated to this module. Transport to the building (Module A4), dismantling at the End-of-Life (C1), transport for the End-of-Life (C2) and the use stage (Module B) are not considered in this study.
Technical purpose of product or process Steel enamel baths and shower trays are used as self-supporting or non self-supporting elements in bathrooms.
Classification number 8.3.03
Classification
Class name : Hierarchy level
  • OEKOBAU.DAT: 8.3.03 Gebäudetechnik / Sanitär / Dusch- und Badewannen
  • IBUCategories: 03 Gebäudetechnik / Sanitäreinrichtungen / Bade- und Duschwannen aus Stahl-Email oder Acryl
General comment on data set Enamelled steel baths and shower trays consist of a deep-drawn bath/tray body made of steel suitable for enamelling which is coated on both sides with base enamel and on the front with finishing enamel. Baths made of KALDEWEI steel enamel conform to DIN EN 14516 “Baths for domestic purposes”; trays made of KALDEWEI steel enamel conform to DIN EN 14527 “Shower trays for domestic purposes”.
Copyright Yes
Owner of data set
Quantitative reference
Reference flow(s)
Material properties of the reference flow
    • conversion factor to 1kg: 0.059 -
    • declared unit: 16.9 kg/m^2
Time representativeness
Data set valid until 2019
Technological representativeness
Technology description including background system The manufacturing process for enamelled baths and shower trays is subdivided into the following processes: - Manufacture of the raw baths and trays - Cleaning the raw baths and trays - Manufacture of the enamel frits - Manufacture of the enamel slips and - Enamelling. The process steps associated with these sub-processes are outlined as follows: 1. Manufacture of the raw baths and trays The raw baths and trays are manufactured in automatic continuous press lines in the following process stages: • Deep-drawing: The baths and trays acquire the required shape by deep-drawing electrostatically-oiled steel blanks in 2-part drawings with forces of 8,000 – 10,000 kN. • Processing the raw bath/tray: After deep-drawing, the outlets, overflows and sometimes holes for handles are punched and the base frame brackets mounted. • Working the edges of the raw bath/tray: The edge contours of the raw baths/trays are produced by folding over and trimming the edges in several operations. 2. Cleaning the raw baths and trays The raw baths and trays are cleaned in a continuous, automated facility according to the following sub-steps: • Degreasing the raw baths and trays: After they have been produced, the raw baths and trays are covered with a film of corrosion-protection oils, deep-drawing oils and abraded metal particles from the deep-drawing process which are washed off by spraying them with alkali tenside solutions. • Acidic rinsing of the raw baths and trays: Any impurities remaining on the raw baths and trays after degreasing are washed off by spraying with a strongly-diluted solution of sulphuric acid. • Alkali rinsing of the raw baths and trays: A temporary rust-inhibiting layer is formed on the raw baths and trays by spraying them with a slightly alkaline amine solution. 3. Manufacture of the enamel frits Enamel frits are for the glass granulates used for enamelling and are produced in the following sub-steps: • Formulation and mixing of the raw materials for the glass: The raw materials for the glass are weighed and mixed in mixing plants. • Smelting the enamel frit: The raw material mixtures for the glass are smelted in batch-type smelters for 2-3 hours at temperatures of between 1,100 and 1,300 °C. When the smelting process is complete, the glass melt is poured into water to quench it and thus granulated. • Drying the enamel frit: The surface water adhering to the grains of the enamel frit is partially removed by drying. 4. Manufacture of the enamel Slips Enamel slips are for the suspensions of glass granulate in water used for enamelling and are produced in the following sub-steps: • Formulation of the raw materials for the slip: Solid raw materials are weighed and filled into batch-operated mills along with the liquid, volumetrically-dosed raw materials. • Grinding process: The raw materials for the slip are ground to enamel slips in drum mills. • Preparation of the enamel slips: After the grinding process, the enamel slips are pumped through systems of sieves and magnetic separators in order to separate off coarse mechanical and magnetic metallic impurities. 5. Enamelling Enamelling is the production of a layer of glass on a metal surface and is carried out in the following sub-steps: • Coating the cleaned raw bath or tray with enamel slip: Robots in automatic spray booths spray the fronts and backs of the raw baths and trays with enamel slips. • Drying the enamel coating: The water remaining in the enamel coating is evaporated in continuous drying ovens. • Firing the enamel coating at 820-860 °C: The enamel coating is fired onto the bath or tray in continuous ovens so that the coating on the upper side of the bath or tray has a thickness of 200-300 μm. • Packaging: An automated system applies the company logo to the enamelled baths and trays before they are packaged. Technical data: Baths and shower trays consist of a deep-drawn bath/tray body made of steel suitable for enamelling which is coated on both sides with base enamel and on the front with finishing enamel. The following chart depicts sample data on two shower trays and three baths. For KALDEWEI products, the ratio of bath/tray surface to the projection surface is determined as follows: For baths: bath surface [m²] ~ 1.5 x projection surface [m²] + 0.5 For shower trays lower than 140 mm: tray surface [m²] ~ 1.14 x projection surface [m²] + 0.06 For shower trays with a depth of 140 mm: tray surface [m²] ~ 1.24 x projection surface [m²] + 0.13 For shower trays with a depth of 250 mm: tray surface [m²] ~ 1.45 x projection surface [m²] + 0.24 Depending on the respective model, features and construction specifications on the test bench, Kaldewei baths and shower trays comply with individual or several sound insulation standards. These include DIN 4109, DIN 4109/A1, VDI 4100 SST I-III and SIA 181. All sound insulation certificates are available on www.kaldewei.de. Declared unit: In accordance with the PCR guidelines for building-related products and services for the building product category of steel enamel baths (PCR Bath 2013), this Environmental Product Declaration refers to the declared unit of 1 m² surface of an average product representing all steel enamel baths and shower trays produced by Kaldewei GmbH& Co. KG. 1 m² surface of an average product weighs 16.9 kg. The enamel-to-surface ratio is comparable for various products: The gross density is the same for the various products. The enamel coating is 200 – 300 µm thick. 0.4 kg packaging material is also declared. No accessory parts are declared.
Flow diagram(s) or picture(s)

Indicators of life cycle

IndicatorDirectionUnit Production
A1-A3
Installation
A5
Waste processing
C3
Disposal
C4
Recycling Potential
D
Input
  • 37.4
  • 0.0167
  • 0
  • 0.0331
  • 4.74
Input
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
Input
  • 37.4
  • 0.0167
  • 0
  • 0.0331
  • 4.74
Input
  • 729
  • 0.19
  • 0
  • 0.445
  • -279
Input
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
Input
  • 729
  • 0.19
  • 0
  • 0.445
  • -279
Input
  • 2.91
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
Input
  • 0.0254
  • 0.00000294
  • 0
  • 0.00078
  • -0.0000177
Input
  • 0.266
  • 0.0000308
  • 0
  • 0.00185
  • -0.000185
Input
  • 0.255
  • 0.168
  • 0
  • -0.000835
  • -0.0123
Output
  • 0.0397
  • 0.00845
  • 0
  • 0.000317
  • -0.0174
Output
  • 2.01
  • 0.0000864
  • 0
  • 2.28
  • -0.413
Output
  • 0.0144
  • 0.00000994
  • 0
  • 0.0000079
  • 0.00741
Output
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
Output
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 15.1
Output
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
Output
  • 0
  • 0.527
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0
Output
  • 0
  • 1.28
  • 0
  • 0
  • 0

Indicators of the impact assessment

IndicatorUnit Production
A1-A3
Installation
A5
Waste processing
C3
Disposal
C4
Recycling Potential
D
  • 58.4
  • 0.612
  • 0
  • 0.0317
  • -31.7
  • 2.94E-8
  • 5.78E-12
  • 0
  • 2.43E-11
  • 2.34E-9
  • 0.0267
  • 0.00000818
  • 0
  • 0.0000205
  • -0.0181
  • 0.218
  • 0.000109
  • 0
  • 0.000193
  • -0.121
  • 0.027
  • 0.0000203
  • 0
  • 0.0000264
  • -0.0101
  • 0.000428
  • 1.7E-8
  • 0
  • 1.14E-8
  • -8.68E-7
  • 706
  • 0.166
  • 0
  • 0.424
  • -296